The emergence of a retail market in the first half of the 19th century dramatically altered the lives of working Americans, both free and enslaved, as the divisions within society deepened. The early expansion of industrial and agricultural development involved different types of labor and economic organization. The changing status of workers and the organization of work not only challenged the Jeffersonian ideal of a nation of property owners but also transformed the nature of work itself.

In what ways did industrial and agricultural development change the nature of work for urban artisans and journeymen in the North and southern slaves and Native Americans in the South, respectively, and how did each group respond to these changes?

Conclude your paper by evaluating the degree to which these groups of people shared in the nation’s prosperity.

Support your paper with relevant evidence from class readings and notes. Use proper attribution, citing the author’s last name and page number when quoting directly and paraphrasing from the readings. Include a works cited page at the end of your paper. Use the following style:

Foner, Eric (2004) Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. New York: Oxford Press.

Clark, Christopher et. al (2008) Who Built America? Working People and the Nation’s History. Volume One: To 1877. New York: Bedford St. Martin’s.

Smith, Adam. The Wealth of Nations http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/WEALTH1.HTM

De Tocqueville, Alexis. How an Aristocracy May be Created by Manufactureshttp://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch2_20.htm

All papers must be typed, double-spaced throughout and five (5) pages in length, each numbered with standard one-inch margins and size 12 font. Respect the page limit. Correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation matter. Use only those sources that have been assigned and discussed in class; do not use any other sources, especially those from the Internet.

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